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Famous Stargazers              Famous Stargazers
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موضوع: Famous Stargazers

  1. #1
    کاربر ممتاز آوا استار ستاره بنیادی آواتار ها
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    تشکر شده 8,433 بار در 878 ارسال
    ویرایش توسط stargazer : 06-04-2012 در ساعت 02:34 PM دلیل: ordering
    گاهی ستاره هدیه کن به مشت پوچ شب ها ...


  2. #31
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
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          Galle, Johann Gottfried (1812–1910

    (Galle, Johann Gottfried (1812–1910



    German astronomer who, with Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, made the first observation of Neptune (1846) based on calculations by Leverrier. Though Galle was the first to observe Neptune, its discovery is usually credited to John Adams (who made an earlier calculation) and Leverrier. Galle also discovered the crêpe ring of Saturn (1838) and suggested a method for determining the scale of the Solar System based on the observation of asteroids.

    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  3. 4 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  4. #32
    کاربر ممتاز آوا استار
    تاریخ عضویت
    Jun 2011
    نوشته ها
    759
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    11,042
    تشکر شده 5,806 بار در 807 ارسال

    christiaan huygens

    christiaan huygens

    1629-1695

    Dutch






    Christian Huygens was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and inventor who was the leading proponent of the wave theory of light. He also made important contributions to mechanics, stating that in a collision between bodies, neither loses nor gains "motion'' (his term for momentum). In astronomy, he discovered Titan (Saturn's largest moon) and was the first to correctly identify the observed elongation of Saturn as the presence of Saturn's rings.

    Christian Huygens was born at the Hague on April 14, 1629, and died there on July 8, 1695. He generally wrote his name as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens.


    aslo you can read more about Christiaan Huygens at This Link

  5. 5 کاربر مقابل از Amin-Mehraji عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  6. #33
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
    محل سکونت
    تبریز
    نوشته ها
    1,068
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    14,157
    تشکر شده 11,951 بار در 1,080 ارسال

          (Kuiper, Gerard Peter (1905–1973

    (Kuiper, Gerard Peter (1905–1973




    Dutch-born American astronomer and graduate of the University of Leiden, who worked at the Yerkes Observatory and later at the McDonald Observatory. His name rhymes with "viper". Early in his career, Kuiper studied binary star and multiple star systems. His observations led him to conclude in 1935 that the average separation between the components of binary stars was about 20 AU, which is similar to the distance of the gas giants from the Sun. Following renewed difficulties with the catastrophic hypothesis of planetary formation, Kuiper speculated in 1951 that "it almost looks as though the solar system is a degenerate double star, in which the second mass did not condense into a single star but was spread out – and formed the planets and comets." Extrapolating from the fact that about 10% of binaries contained companion stars that were one-tenth or less as massive as the primaries, Kuiper suggested there might be 100 billion planetary systems in our Galaxy alone.

    Kuiper's spectroscopic studies led to the discovery of the atmosphere of Titan (1944) and features, afterward known as Kuiper bands, in the spectra of Uranus and Neptune, due to methane. He discovered Uranus's moon Miranda (1948) and Neptune's moon Nereid (1949). He also detected carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere (1947) and suggested that lichenlike planets might exist on the martian surface .
    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  7. 2 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  8. #34
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
    محل سکونت
    تبریز
    نوشته ها
    1,068
    تشکر
    14,157
    تشکر شده 11,951 بار در 1,080 ارسال

          (Van Allen, James Alfred (1914–2006

    (Van Allen, James Alfred (1914–2006



    American space scientist who contributed to 24 satellite and space probe missions, including some of the early Explorers and pioneers 10 and 11. His research focused on planetary magnetospheres and the solar wind. He began high-altitude rocket research in 1945, initially used captured V-2s, and is best remembered for his discovery of the radiation belts that were subsequently named after him .

    Van Allen received a BS from Iowa Wesleyan College in 1935, and a M.S. (1936) and Ph.D. (1939) from the California Institute of Technology. After a spell with the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, where he studied photodisintegration, Van Allen moved in 1942 to the Applied Physics Laboratory at The Johns Hopkins University where he worked to develop a rugged vacuum tube. He also helped to develop proximity fuses for weapons used in World War II, especially for torpedoes used by the United States Navy. By the fall of 1942, he had been commissioned as an officer in the Navy and was sent to the Pacific to field test and complete operational requirements for the proximity fuses. After the War, Van Allen returned to civilian life and began working in high altitude research, first for the Applied Physics Laboratory and, after 1950, at the University of Iowa. Van Allen's career took an important turn in 1955 when he and several other American scientists developed proposals for the launch of a scientific satellite as part of the research program conducted during the
    International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957–58. After the success of the Soviet Union with Sputnik 1, Van Allen's Explorer spacecraft was approved for launch on a Redstone rocket. It flew on January 31,1958, and returned enormously important scientific data about the radiation belts circling the Earth. Van Allen became a celebrity because of the success of that mission, and went on to other important scientific projects in space. In various ways, he was involved in the first four Explorer probes, the first Pioneers, several Mariner projects and the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory Van Allen retired from the University of Iowa in 1985 to become Carver Professor of Physics, Emeritus, after having served as the head of the Department of Physics and Astronomy from 1951.

    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  9. 2 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  10. #35
    کاربر ممتاز آوا استار رخساره روشنی آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Nov 2011
    محل سکونت
    Hamedan
    نوشته ها
    632
    تشکر
    8,638
    تشکر شده 7,688 بار در 659 ارسال

          Jack Horkheimer




    Jack Horkheimer, born Foley Arthur Horkheimer (June 11, 1938 – August 20, 2010), was the executive director of the Miami Space Transit Planetarium. He was best known for his astronomy show Jack Horkheimer: Star Gazer, which started airing on PBS on November 4, 1976.

    Horkheimer started his astronomy career in 1964, when he was 26, after he moved to Miami and met astronomer Arthur Smith. Smith was the president of the Miami Museum of Science and the chief of the Southern Cross Astronomical Society Horkheimer started volunteering at the planetarium writing shows and was later offered a position with the museum.

    Smith asked Horkheimer to run the Miami Space Transit Planetarium when it opened in 1966. Horkheimer's shows were successful and the planetarium went from losing money to becoming profitable. Horkheimer worked his way up to become the planetarium's educational director and eventually the executive director.

    Horkheimer changed the planetarium show from a science lecture to a multimedia event including music, lights and narration. He created the Child of the Universe show for the planetarium in 1972, which became famous and used in other planetariums across the country. Sally Jessy Raphael portrayed the voice of the solar system in this show. The show won an international award from the society of European astronomers in 1976. Horkheimer became the executive director of the Miami Space Transit Planetarium in 1973 and stayed there for 35 years until his retirement in 2008.
    for read more please click on this link :http://www.starhustler.com

  11. 3 کاربر مقابل از رخساره روشنی عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  12. #36
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
    محل سکونت
    تبریز
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    1,068
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    تشکر شده 11,951 بار در 1,080 ارسال

          (Joy, Alfred Harrison (1883–1973

    (Joy, Alfred Harrison (1883–1973




    American astronomer best known for his work on stellar distances, the radial motions of stars, and variable stars. After teaching astronomy for a number of years and spending a year at Yerkes Observatory, Joy came to Mount Wilson Observatory in 1915. There he applied Walter Adams's method of spectroscopic parallax to determine the distances of thousands of stars. When he retired nearly half of all published radial velocities of stars had been found at Mount Wilson, largely through his efforts. His measurements of the radial velocities of Cepheid Variables confirmed the distance and direction of the galactic center and the Sun's rate of revolution about it. He also invented the classification of T Tauri stars and made extensive studies of them. Although he officially retired in 1948, Joy remained active at Mount Wilson for a total of nearly 66 years.
    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  13. 3 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  14. #37
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
    محل سکونت
    تبریز
    نوشته ها
    1,068
    تشکر
    14,157
    تشکر شده 11,951 بار در 1,080 ارسال

          (-Levy, David H. (1948

    (-Levy, David H. (1948

    Canadian amateur astronomer who, in 1993, along with Gene and Carolyn shoemaker, discovered the most famous comet of recent years. Comet shoemaker-Levy 9, as it became known, attracted the attention of public and professionals alike when it smashed into Jupiter in July 1994. Levy discovered his first comet in 1984 and since then has discovered 20 more – 8 from his own backyard and 13 in collaboration with the Shoemakers at Palomar Observatory. He is also the author of a number of popular astronomy books.

    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  15. 3 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  16. #38
    کاربر ممتاز آوا استار
    تاریخ عضویت
    Jun 2011
    نوشته ها
    759
    تشکر
    11,042
    تشکر شده 5,806 بار در 807 ارسال

    joseph-louis lagrange

    joseph-louis lagrange

    1736-1813
    French





    The Joseph Lagrange Biography tells of his contributions in the fields of analysis and number theory to classical and celestial mechanics. He was called the greatest mathematician of the 18th century.



    The Early Years

    Joseph Louis Lagrange was born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia on January 25, 1736 in Turin, Italy. His father, Giuseppe Francesco Lodovico Lagrangia, was of Italian and French descent. His mother, Teresa Grosso, was the only daughter of a medical doctor from Cambiano near Turin. Lagrange was the oldest of 11 children, but only 2 lived to adulthood. Even though his father was the Treasurer of the Office of Public Works and Fortifications, they were not rich. His father lost his money due to financial speculations.




    Mathematics

    According to the Joseph Lagrange Biography, Lagrange later was quoted as saying, If I had been rich, I probably would not have devoted myself to mathematics. Lagrange went to the College of Turin, but it wasn’t until he read a paper by Edmund Halley that he developed an interest in mathematics. He was basically self taught and at the age of 18 wrote his first paper on mathematics. By the age of 20 he was a professor of geometry in the royal artillery school in Turin. By his mid twenties he was known as the greatest living mathematician. Lagrange also created the calculus of variations. The Joseph Lagrange Biography continues with him going on to become the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Above all he changed Newtonian mechanics into a branch of analysis and it is now called Lagrangian mechanics.During his years in Prussia, Lagrange married his Vittoria Conti. This union was not a happy one and according to Lagrange’s wishes had no children. His wife died shortly after their marriage.




    Astronomy


    In 1764 Lagrange studied the three-body problem of the Earth, Sun and Moon and in 1766 the satellites of Jupiter. In 1772 he found the special-case solution to the problem. It is now known as Lagrangian points. Also in 1764 he began work on why the same side of the Moon always faced Earth. In 1780 he formally proved his solution with the idea of generalized equations of motion.According to the Joseph Lagrange Biography he wrote numerous papers on the problems of astronomy. The most important being:


    1773, the attraction of ellipsoids
    1774, the motion of the nodes of a planet
    1778 & 1783, the method of determining the orbit of a comet




    Later Years


    In 1786, according to the Joseph Lagrange Biography, he migrated to Paris. He was given the title of senator and also became a count in the first empire of France. He became a member of the French Academy of Sciences. It was while in France that he met and married his second wife, Renee-Francoise-Adelaide Le Monnie, the daughter of one his colleagues. In 1808 Napoleon made Lagrange a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour and a Comte (count) of the empire. A week before his death in Paris, he was awarded the Grand Croix of the Order Imperial de la Reunion.It is believe that the frequent bouts of melancholy contributed to his death. On April 10, 1813, Lagrange passed away in Paris France. He was later buried in the Pantheon in Paris.In his honor a street in Paris is named rue Lagrange. In Turin the street where he was born is named via Lagrange.

  17. 4 کاربر مقابل از Amin-Mehraji عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  18. #39
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
    محل سکونت
    تبریز
    نوشته ها
    1,068
    تشکر
    14,157
    تشکر شده 11,951 بار در 1,080 ارسال

          (Bappu, (Manali Kallat) Vainu (1927–1982

    (Bappu, (Manali Kallat) Vainu (1927–1982




    Prominent Indian astronomer who did much to set up new observatories and astronomical research centers in his native country. His father was an assistant at the Nizamiah Observatory in Hyderabad, so that Bappu was exposed to astronomy from an early age. He won a scholarship to Harvard and co-discovered a comet, named Bappu-Bok-Newkirk, shortly after his arrival. Later he went to the Palomar Observatory where he and Colin Wilson discovered a relationship, now known as the Wilson-Bappu effect, between the luminosity of certain kinds of stars and some of their spectral characteristics. In 1953, he returned to India and worked at the Uttar Pradesh State Observatory before becoming director of the observatory at Kodaikanal, the oldest in India. He helped establish the Indian Institute of Astrophysics at Bangalore and set up the largest telescope in India, a 2.34-meter reflector at the Kavalur Observatory – an instrument named in his honor in 1986.
    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  19. 4 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


  20. #40
    ديوان سالار ويكی نجوم هانیه امیری آواتار ها
    تاریخ عضویت
    Sep 2011
    محل سکونت
    تبریز
    نوشته ها
    1,068
    تشکر
    14,157
    تشکر شده 11,951 بار در 1,080 ارسال

          (Digges, Leonard (c.1520–c.1559) and Thomas (c.1545–1595

    Famous Stargazers         
    (Digges, Leonard (c.1520–c.1559) and Thomas (c.1545–1595


    English father and son who pioneered the construction of the telescope (Leonard) and its use (Thomas). Leonard Digges was educated at Oxford and made his name as a mathematician, a surveyor, and an author of several books. He invented a reflecting telescope a century before Isaac Newton, and may also have built a refracting telescope.

    Thomas was only 13 when his father died but had John Dee, a mathematician, as his guardian. In 1571, Thomas published a mathematical work of his own and a posthumous book,
    Pantometria, by his father in which Leonard's invention of the telescope is discussed. Thomas's observations of the supernova of 1572 were used by Tycho Brahe in his analysis of this event. Thomas was also the first to promote in Britain the heliocentric view of the solar system due to Copernicus. He was also a pioneer of the enlarged, stellar universe, maintaining that the stars, instead of being fixed to a crystalline sphere, were other suns lying at great distances. However, although he helped pave the way for others, like Huygens, to contemplate the possibility of extrasolar planets and life, he continued to regard the Sun as special and centrally located in the Universe. It has been suggested that Digges may have met Giordano Bruno during the latter's stay in England and derived some of his ideas from the Italian.
    وقتی خدا را دیدم که مشکلم را حل می کرد، من به توانایی او ایمان می آوردم

    و وقتی حل نمی کرد


    می فهمیدم او به توانایی من ایمان دارد...


  21. 2 کاربر مقابل از هانیه امیری عزیز به خاطر این پست مفید تشکر کرده اند.


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